Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder prevalent among women of reproductive age. Women with this syndrome may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries might develop several small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs. Its exact cause is unknown. Timely diagnosis and treatment along with weight loss may reduce the risk of long-term complications such as diabetes and heart disease.Symptoms
Signs of PCOS include infrequent, irregular or prolonged menstrual cycles.Excess androgen:
Elevated levels of male hormone results in physical signs, such as excess facial and body hair (hirsutism), and occasionally severe acne and male-pattern baldness.Polycystic ovaries:
The ovaries might be enlarged and contain follicles that surround the eggs resulting in the failure of regular function of ovaries.Causes Excess insulin. :
Ovulation might become difficult if excess insulin is secreted as it leads to increased androgen production.Low-grade inflammation:
This term is used to describe white blood cells' production of substances to fight infection. It has been found that the women with PCOS have a type of low-grade inflammation that stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens, which can lead to heart and blood vessel problems.Heredity:
Some specific genes might be linked to PCOS according to researchers.Excess androgen:
Abnormally high levels of androgen may result in hirsutism and acne.
Management and treatment of PCOS includes a range of elements such as a healthy approach to diet and physical activity, medications and complementary therapies.
The keys to manage PCOS well include:
The doctors recommend weight loss through a low-calorie diet combined with moderate physical activities. Even a small reduction in your weight might improve your condition. Weight loss might also increase the effectiveness of medications recommended by your doctor for PCOS, and it can help with infertility.Medications
For the regulation of your menstrual cycle, your doctor might recommend Combination birth control pills. Pills containing estrogen and progesterone decrease androgen production and regulate estrogen. Hormones regulation can lower down your risk of endometrial cancer and correct abnormal bleeding, excess hair growth and acne. A skin patch or vaginal ring that contains a combination of estrogen and progestin can also be used instead of medicines.
Progestin intake for 10 to 14 days every one to two months could regulate your periods and provide protection against endometrial cancer. Progestin therapy cannot improve androgen levels and will not prevent pregnancy. The progestin-only mini pill or progestin-containing intrauterine device is a better choice if you wish to avoid pregnancy too. Ovulation can be increased using the following medications:Clomiphene (Clomid)
It is an oral anti-estrogen medication taken during the first part of your menstrual cycle.Letrozole (Femara)
It can work to stimulate the ovaries.Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet, others).
If you have diabetes, metformin can be recommended to you which can slow down the progression to type 2 diabetes and help with weight loss. Gonadotropins. These medications are given by injection.